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润滑油的一般理化性能!
作者:admin 来源:本站 发布时间:2019-8-9 16:14:39 浏览次数:95

  每一类润滑油脂都有其共同的一般理化性能,以表明该产品的内在质量。对润滑油来说,这些一般理化性能如下:

  Each type of lubricating grease has its common physical and chemical properties to show the intrinsic quality of the product. For lubricants, these general physical and chemical properties are as follows:

  (1)外观(色度) 油品的颜色,往往可以反映其精制程度和稳定性。对于基础油来说,一般精制程度越高,其烃的氧化物和硫化物脱除的越干净,颜色也就越浅。但是,即使精制的条件相同,不同油源和基属的原油所生产的基础油,其颜色和透明度也可能是不相同的。对于新的成品润滑油,由于添加剂的使用,颜色作为判断基础油精制程度高低的指标已失去了它原来的意义。

  (1) Appearance (chroma) oil color, often can reflect the degree of refinement and stability. For base oils, the cleaner the removal of oxides and sulfides from hydrocarbons, the lighter the color. However, even if the refining conditions are the same, the colour and transparency of base oils produced from different sources and base oils may be different. For the new finished lubricating oil, because of the use of additives, color has lost its original meaning as an index to judge the refining degree of base oil.

  (2)密度 密度是润滑油最简单、最常用的物理性能指标。润滑油的密度随其组成中含碳、氧、硫的数量的增加而增大,因而在同样粘度或同样相对分子质量的情况下,含芳烃多的,含胶质和沥青质多的润滑油密度最大,含环烷烃多的居中,含烷烃多的最小。

  (2) Density is the simplest and most commonly used physical property index of lubricating oil. The density of lubricating oil increases with the increase of the amount of carbon, oxygen and sulfur in its composition. Therefore, under the same viscosities or the same relative molecular weight, the density of lubricating oil with more aromatic hydrocarbons, more gum and asphaltene is the highest, the density of lubricating oil with more naphthenic hydrocarbons is the middle, and the number of alkanes is the lowest.

  (3)粘度 粘度反映油品的内摩擦力,是表示油品油性和流动性的一项指标。在未加任何功能添加剂的前提下,粘度越大,油膜强度越高,流动性越差。

  (3) Viscosity reflects the internal friction of oil products and is an indicator of oil properties and fluidity. Without any functional additives, the higher the viscosity, the higher the film strength and the worse the fluidity.

  (4)粘度指数 粘度指数表示油品粘度随温度变化的程度。粘度指数越高,表示油品粘度受温度的影响越小,其粘温性能越好,反之越差。

  (4) Viscosity index viscosity index indicates the degree to which the viscosity of oil varies with temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the smaller the influence of temperature on the oil viscosity, the better the viscosity-temperature performance, and vice versa.

  (5)闪点 闪点是表示油品蒸发性的一项指标。油品的馏分越轻,蒸发性越大,其闪点也越低。反之,油品的馏分越重,蒸发性越小,其闪点也越高。同时,闪点又是表示石油产品着火危险性的指标。油品的危险等级是根据闪点划分的,闪点在45℃以下为易燃品,45℃以上为可燃品,在油品的储运过程中严禁将油品加热到它的闪点温度。在粘度相同的情况下,闪点越高越好。因此,用户在选用润滑油时应根据使用温度和润滑油的工作条件进行选择。一般认为,闪点比使用温度高20~30℃,即可安全使用。

  (5) Flash point is an indicator of oil evaporation. The lighter the fraction, the greater the evaporation and the lower the flash point. On the contrary, the heavier the fraction, the smaller the evaporation and the higher the flash point. At the same time, flash point is an indicator of the fire risk of petroleum products. The danger grade of oil products is classified according to the flash point. The flash point is flammable below 45 C and flammable above 45 C. It is strictly prohibited to heat the oil to its flash point temperature during the storage and transportation of oil products. In the case of the same viscosity, the higher the flash point, the better. Therefore, the user should choose the lubricant according to the temperature and working conditions of the lubricant. It is generally believed that the flash point can be safely used when it is 20-30 C higher than the service temperature.

  (6)凝点和倾点 凝点是指在规定的冷却条件下油品停止流动的最高温度。油品的凝固和纯化合物的凝固有很大的不同。油品并没有明确的凝固温度,所谓“凝固”只是作为整体来看失去了流动性,并不是所有的组分都变成了固体。润滑油的凝点是表示润滑油低温流动性的一个重要质量指标。对于生产、运输和使用都有重要意义。凝点高的润滑油不能在低温下使用。相反,在气温较高的地区则没有必要使用凝点低的润滑油。因为润滑油的凝点越低,其生产成本越高,造成不必要的浪费。一般说来,润滑油的凝点应比使用环境的最低温度低5~7℃。但是特别还要提及的是,在选用低温的润滑油时,应结合油品的凝点、低温粘度及粘温特性全面考虑。因为低凝点的油品,其低温粘度和粘温特性亦有可能不符合要求。凝点和倾点都是油品低温流动性的指标,两者无原则的差别,只是测定方法稍有不同。同一油品的凝点和倾点并不完全相等,一般倾点都高于凝点2~3℃,但也有例外。

  (6) Point of condensation and pour point of condensation are the highest temperatures at which oil stops flowing under specified cooling conditions. The coagulation of oil products is quite different from that of purified compounds. There is no definite solidification temperature for oil products. The so-called "solidification" only loses fluidity as a whole, and not all components become solid. The solidification point of lubricating oil is an important quality index to indicate the low temperature fluidity of lubricating oil. It is of great significance for production, transportation and use. Lubricants with high pour point cannot be used at low temperatures. On the contrary, there is no need to use low pour point lubricants in areas with higher temperatures. Because the lower the solidification point of lubricating oil, the higher the production cost, resulting in unnecessary waste. Generally speaking, the solidification point of lubricating oil should be 5 - 7 C lower than the lowest temperature in the environment. However, it should also be mentioned that the solidification point, low temperature viscosity and viscosity-temperature characteristics of the oil should be considered comprehensively when selecting low-temperature lubricants. Because of the low pour point oil, its low temperature viscosity and viscosity-temperature characteristics may also not meet the requirements. Condensation point and pour point are both indicators of low temperature fluidity of oil products. There is no principled difference between them, but the measuring methods are slightly different. The pour point and pour point of the same oil product are not completely equal. Generally, the pour point is higher than the pour point of 2-3 C, but there are exceptions.

  (7)酸值、碱值和中和值 酸值是表示润滑油中含有酸性物质的指标,单位是mgKOH/g。酸值分强酸值和弱酸值两种,两者合并即为总酸值(简称TAN)。我们通常所说的“酸值”,实际上是指“总酸值(TAN)”。碱值是表示润滑油中碱性物质含量的指标,单位是mgKOH/g。碱值亦分强碱值和弱碱值两种,两者合并即为总碱值(简称TBN)。我们通常所说的“碱值”实际上是指“总碱值(TBN)”。

  (7) Acid value, base value and neutral value are indicators of acidic substances in lubricating oils, in units of mgKOH/g. The acid value is divided into strong acid value and weak acid value. The combination of the two is total acid value (TAN). What we usually call "acid value" actually refers to "total acid value (TAN)". Base number is the index of alkaline substance content in lubricating oil, and the unit is mgKOH/g. The base value can be divided into strong base value and weak base value. The combination of the two is total base value (TBN). What we usually call "base number" actually refers to "total base number (TBN)".


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